I. NEW WINE AT PENTECOST: ACTS 2:13
For forty days after His resurrection Jesus taught his disciples, Acts 1:4. He told them to wait in Jerusalem for the Holy Spirit Who, when He came, would give them power to be witnesses for Him throughout the world. He returned to heaven and His disciples and other followers, 120 in all, started a prayer meeting in an upper room as they waited for the Holy Spirit.
Ten days later, on the day of the feast of Pentecost the Holy Spirit came to live in the believers in Christ; He gave these believers the ability to preach the Gospel in all the languages of the people gathered in Jerusalem for the feast. Many of the listeners believed that Jesus Christ had died for their sins, and that God had raised Him up from the dead. They recognized that they were sinful themselves and repented of their sins. Those who gladly received the gift of forgiveness for their sins were baptized in a public act that declared their faith in Christ. Other listeners, however, did not accept the words of Jesus' followers, even though by a miracle of God each one heard the truth in his own language. They refused the message and mocked or made fun of the messengers.
Acts 2:7 – 13.
And they were all amazed . . . Behold are not all these who speak Galileans? And how
hear we every man in our own tongue (language) wherein we were born? . . . We do
hear them speak the wonderful works of God. And they were all amazed, and were
perplexed (didn't know what to make of it), saying one to another, What meaneth this?
Others, mocking, said, These men are full of new wine (gleukos).
New wine or gleukos is not intoxicating. The men who refused Christ’s message, in mockery of the message they were hearing, accused the disciples of being full of gleukos. Gleukos was commonly known to be grape juice. The mockers did not use the word oinos, the ordinary word for wine. Defenders of alcohol, non-Christian and Christian, take the mockers words in Acts 2:13 as proof of alcohol drinking in the earliest days of the church.
II. THE MEANING OF GLEUKOS
- They assume the mockers were creditable serious witnesses who were not joking or making fun of the followers of Christ but were stating facts they knew to be true. In other words, they were eye-witnesses who had seen believers in Christ drinking alcohol on previous occasions.
- They assume that the mockers accused Christ's followers of being drunk. The word full, methuo, they say means drunk.
- Then they go on to assume, that because the believers were drunk, gleukos has to be intoxicating. They say the gleukos was sweet because the fermentation had been stopped before all the sugar was used up—but the wine was alcoholic and, drunk in large quantities, would lead to drunkenness.
- They also claim that Peter's answer does not deny the charge of drunkenness, only the timing of it. Peter said in Acts 2:15, "For these are not drunken, as ye suppose, seeing it is but the third hour (9 a.m.) of the day.
The word gleukos is found only in Acts 2:13 in the New Testament. We have briefly studied this verse in a lesson about tirosh in the Old Testament. In Donnegan's Lexicon, Dr. Patton writes, gleukos is new, unfermented wine or must. Rev. T.S. Green's Lexicon says it is the unfermented juice of the grape, “must”; hence, sweet new wine. It is taken from the word glukus, sweet.
Dr. Patton goes on to name more Bible scholars and historians who have written about Acts 2:13. Kitto calls gleukos “must”, sweet or new wine. Josephus, the Jewish historian, says it was the wine pressed from a cluster of fresh grapes. Smith in his Greek and Roman Antiquities writes that gleukos was the sweet unfermented juice of the grape. Smith's Dictionary of the Bible tells us that a certain amount of juice exuded (flowed out freely) from the ripe fruit before treading began. This was gleukos, sweet wine. Rev. Albert Barnes says “this word properly means the juice of the grape … called ‘must’…sweet…The ancients, it is said, had the art of preserving their new wine …and were in the habit of drinking it in the morning.” 1
Dr. Teachout explains further that gleukos is always unfermented juice in both classical and Koine Greek.2
Dr. Bacchiocchi quotes Pliny who wrote that gleukos was permanent “must”. He also refers to Horace Bumstead, a Bible scholar who published The Biblical Sanction of Wine in 1881. Although Mr. Bumstead wanted to prove that the Scriptures allowed the drinking of alcohol in moderation, he did write, “Gleukos, as in classical Greek, corresponds to the Latin mustum, meaning the newly expressed juice of the grape . . . I see no necessity for trying to prove it intoxicating . . . .”3
Bumstead explained that the Greeks would call the product of the wine-press sweet in three different situations: first, as gleukos, when it was sweet because there was no vinous fermentation; second, as oinos glukus, when it was sweet because fermentation was stopped before all the sugar turned to alcohol; and third, as oinos hedus, when it was sweet because it had been protected from acetous fermentation, or souring. Dr. Bacchiocchi says, “What this means is that when the word gleukos occurs by itself, as in Acts 2:13, it refers specifically to unfermented grape juice.”4
Why do Dr. Patton, Dr. Teachout and Dr. Bacchiocchi emphasize so strongly that gleukos is unfermented juice? The reason for this emphasis is that well known Bible dictionaries and commentaries define gleukos as intoxicating. They say, “The accusation (of the mockers) shows that gleukos was intoxicant and must have been undergoing fermentation for some time.”5
III. THE MOCKERS' WORDS; THE BELIEVERS' TESTIMONY
They Are Full of Grape Juice
Matthew Henry in his commentary on Acts 2:13 writes,
As when they resolved not to believe the finger of the Spirit in Christ's miracles, they
turned it off with this, “He casteth out devils by compact with the prince of devils;” so,
when they resolved not to believe the voice of the Spirit in the apostles' preaching, they
turned it off with this,“These men are full of new wine.” And, if they called the Master of
the house a winebibber, no marvel if they so call those of his household.”6
Dr. Teachout reminds us of who was doing the talking in Acts 2:13. The mockers used the word gleukos because everyone knew Christ and His followers abstained from alcoholic liquor. They were scornful as they ridiculed the Christians, “They have had too much grape juice to drink!”7 Dr. Bacchiocchi says the mockers meant, “These men, too abstemious (abstainers from alcohol) to touch anything fermented, have made themselves drunk on grape juice.” Ernest Gordon uses modern speech: “These drys are drunk on soft drink.” Since grape juice cannot make anyone drunk, the point of the joke, says Horace Bumstead, was saying that it did, to make the ridiculous believers look all the more foolish.8
Two things, Dr. Patton says, are wrong with the accusation against the disciples of Christ. First, drinking new wine cannot make you drunk because it is grape juice. Second, drinking alcoholic wine cannot teach you a language. Drunks may be very talkative but their talk is certainly not ability to preach the Gospel in foreign languages.9
Why didn't the mockers say the Christians were drunk on oinos? Probably because it was common knowledge that Jesus and His followers did not drink alcohol. The fact that they did say gleukos in Acts 2:13 is “an indirect but telling proof that the apostles abstained from alcoholic beverages.”10
Abstinence in the Early Church
The early Christians did abstain from alcohol. In the next lessons we will study the letters Peter and Paul wrote to the churches. Dr. Bacchiocchi thinks an investigation of the life-style of early Christian sects would supply historical evidence that the church of that time abstained from alcohol. Some of the sects, because of their concern about abstinence, went to the extreme of rejecting both fermented and unfermented wine. They used water at the communion service.
IV. PETER'S ANSWER TO THE MOCKERS
Acts 2:4 tells us plainly that the Holy Spirit gave the 120 believers in Christ, Acts 1:15, the ability to speak foreign languages. As they were speaking in these different foreign languages to the Jews from many countries gathered in Jerusalem for the Feast of Pentecost, the taunts of the unbelieving mockers rang out against them. In Acts 2:15-17, Peter addresses the taunt that the followers of Christ, were full of grape juice.
He tells them, “For these are not drunken (methuo or full) as ye suppose.” Then he
adds, “…it is only the third hour of the day, or 9 a.m., the hour of the morning sacrifice.”
Peter goes on to explain that the genuine manifestation of the Spirit they were hearing—the speaking in foreign languages—was part of the prophecy of the book of Joel in the Old Testament. “And… I will pour out My Spirit upon all flesh, and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy…” Joel 2:28.
The Claim That Peter's Answer Allows for Drinking Alcoholic Wine
The moderationists claim that Peter did not specifically deny the charge that the Christians were “full,” a term they take to mean “drunk.” He did not plainly say, “No, we are not drunk. We followers of Christ abstain from alcohol.” He only said they could not be drunken (methuo well filled) this early as it was only 9 o'clock. This, to them, implies that Peter accepted the charge of drinking alcohol as true.
Peter had no reason to say the Christians did not drink alcohol. The mockers had not accused them of being full of alcoholic wine. They said gleukos, and the Christians did drink gleukos. Peter could not deny this.
As to being full (from the methuo word group), or as the moderationists say the word means, alcoholic drunk, that was impossible from drinking gleukos. In effect Peter said, “How can you say we are methuo or well-filled (translated drunken) when it is only 9 o'clock in the morning?” Peter didn't argue with the mockers. He made their arguments look foolish. Such a reply says Dr. Bacchiocchi, fit the circumstance and exposed the insincerity of the mockers.
This incident took place on the day of the Feast of Pentecost. Dr. Patton informs us that it was a well known practice of the Jews not to eat or drink before 9 a.m. on sabbaths and solemn feast days.11
LESSON 5 PART TWO
WORDS ABOUT ALCOHOL DRINKING
The Greek New Testament has five special words that describe wine, wine drinking and the Christian testimony concerning alcohol. Because these words are often repeated in different books of the Bible, we will study each one separately before we meet it in different verses.
I. METHUO: FILLED TO SATISFACTION
The verb methuo means “filled to the full.”12 It is assumed by many who approve of moderate drinking that methuo means only “to be drunk” on intoxicating wine. It is true that it can mean filled up or drunk on alcoholic drink. But in John 2:11, we saw that methuo does not always mean intoxication and drunkenness. The context of methuo shows whether what is drunk is alcoholic or not. The Greek Old Testament often uses the word methuo to mean “filled to the full” when it is not talking about alcoholic beverages.
Psalm 23:5 says, “. . . my cup runneth over or overflows.” Runneth over or overflows is
methuskon from methuo. It means “full to the brim.”
Psalm 36:8 tells us how satisfied God's children will be with Him. “They will be
abundantly satisfied with the fatness (from methuo) of Thy house.”
Psalm 65:10 describes how God sends rain on the earth. The Revised Standard Version
of the Bible says, “Thou waterest its furrows abundantly (methuson).” Jeremiah 31:14,
“And I will fill to the full (methuso), the soul of the priests.”
In the lesson about the wedding wine, we mentioned the verse in Genesis 43:34 about Joseph and his brothers and the verse in Song of Solomon 5:1. In both these verses the word methuo refers to drinking to satisfaction but is not talking about alcoholic wine.
Dr. Patton says that verses with methuo in the Greek Old Testament, the Septuagint, show that it is used when talking about food, milk, water, blood and oil as well as wine.13
II. ASOTIA: UNSAVABLE
And be not drunk with wine, in which is excess . . . .
The Greek word asotia in Ephesians 5:18 is translated “excess” in the King James Bible. In Titus 1:6 and I Peter 4:4 it is “profligacy” or being immoral and shameless. The Revised Standard Version translates it “debauchery,” or moral corruption.
Asotia is made up of negative “a” which means not, and sozein, to save. Taken literally or just as it is written, say both Dr. Patton and Dr. Bacchiocchi, it means unsavableness or the absence of salvation. It is the state of hopeless moral dissoluteness. A person who is dissolute is unrestrained, immoral, profligate (immoral, shameless), debauched (corrupt, immoral). Albert Barnes defines asotia as “that which is unsafe, not to be recovered, lost beyond recovery; then that which is abandoned to . . . lust.”14
III. SOPHRON: SOBER, ABSTINENT
Sophron Is Connected with Nephalios
Peter and Paul use the two words sophron and nephalios in their epistles. Both sophron and nephalios are usually translated with the same English words. They are “temperate” or “sober.”
Why do the meanings of these two words merge and why are they often used interchangeably? It happens because sophron and nephalios describe the same moral quality, each from its own viewpoint. Sophron stands for mental soberness and nephalios for physical soberness or abstinence. Think of the connection between these words this way:
Refusing to take alcohol into the body or physical abstinence is necessary if you want a
sound mind, and a sound mind is the great quality of character that results if you strictly
refuse to take alcohol into the body.
Because physical abstinence and mental soberness are so closely linked—you can't have one without the other—it is not surprising that each word includes and stands for the other one too.
When we study sophron and nephalios in the Bible and in other Greek writings, says Dr. Bacchiocchi, we see that their primary meaning, and the meaning of words derived from them, is to abstain from all intoxicating beverages.
The Meaning of Sophron
Sophron comes from two words, saos or “sound,” and phren mind."It means “sound minded,” or mental soundness. Most Greek lexicons agree about this meaning. Arndt and Gingrich say, “to be in one's right mind.” Donnegan writes, “sound in intellect, not deranged” and Green, “of a sound mind, sane, staid, temperate, chaste.”15
While sophron always has the primary idea of mental soundness, it and its related words are never separated from the idea of physical abstinence. Physical abstinence is the basis for a sound mind. A well-known Roman proverb says "a sound mind in a sound body."16
Bible Verses with Sophron
Sophron and words related to it occur fifteen times in the New Testament. (The first meaning listed is from the King James Version of the Bible. For some words, the meaning in the Revised Standard version is added.)
Mark 5:15, Luke 8:35 and II Corinthians 5:13,right mind, sober mind
Acts 26:25, Romans 12:3, Titus 2:12,soberness, soberly
I Timothy 3:2 and Titus 2:2, sober
I Timothy 2:9,15, sobriety. Verse 9––sensible in the Revised Standard Version
Titus 1:8, sober-minded––self controlled in the RSV
Titus 2:4,6, sober, sober minded
Titus 2:5, discreet––sensibly in the RSV
I Peter 4:7, sober––sane in the RSV.
Early Writers Often Used Sophron to Mean Abstinence
Aristotle (384 – 322 B.C.) certainly used sophron to mean abstain. In his Ethics he says,
By abstaining from pleasures we become sober (sophrones).. . . He who abstains
from physical pleasure, and in this very thing takes delight, is sober, (sophron).17
Another quote, this time from Jewish writing, The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, (first century A.D.) clearly teaches abstinence from wine. 18
But if ye would live soberly (sophrosune) do not touch wine at all, lest ye sin in words
of outrage, and in fightings and slanders, and transgressions of the commandments of
God, and ye perish before your time.
Philo, a Jewish philosopher who lived during the time of Christ, used the word sophrosune often. The sophrosune in his writing is a person who is free from the drunkenness of the world. He used the opposite of sophrosune, the word aphrosune, to describe someone who is inflamed by wine and drowns his life in unending drunkenness.19
Still another author, Clement of Alexandria (about 150 – 215 A.D.),made a very clear statement. “I therefore admire those who have adopted an austere life, and who are fond of water, the medicine of temperance (tes sophrosunes) and flee as far as possible from wine, shunning it as they would the danger of fire.” 20 And Ulrich Luck says in the Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, that sophron meant abstinence and chastity to the Hellenistic Jews (Jews who spoke Greek and scattered to all lands). It had the same meaning in the early church.21
The English Words “Sober” and “Temperate” Today
Since sophron and nephalios are often translated “sober” or “temperate” in English, we should take time to look at “sober” and “temperate.”
Dr. Patton tells us that the English word temperance is taken directly from the Latin temperantia, the root of which is found in the Greek temo, temno, tempo, to cut off. Therefore temperantia (temperance, temperate) is the cutting off of that which ought not to be held on to. It means keeping yourself from, not in, the use of whatever is evil, useless or dangerous.
In years past, “temperance, temperate, sober” were words that stood first of all for abstinence from alcohol. Their meanings are not the same today. In Webster's New World Dictionary, 1972, sober is 1. temperate or sparing in the use of alcoholic liquor, 2. not drunk, 3. temperate in any way, 4. serious, solemn, grave or sedate, 5. not bright, flashy, 6. not exaggerated or distorted, 7. characterized by reason, sanity or self-control; showing mental and emotional balance.
The same dictionary says that temperance and temperate are moderation . . . in drinking alcoholic liquors, showing self-restraint in conduct, moderation, or total abstinence.
Although the dictionary connects both sober and temperate to alcohol, the meanings given for these words clearly promote moderate drinking. Most people today believe these words mean only moderation. But the moderate drinker is not sober, especially according to definitions number four, six and seven of sober. He cannot show mental balance or self restraint when a dangerous situation demands instant control. Alcohol affects the brain immediately. It is the moderate drinkers who cause the highest percentage of highway accidents.
English “sober” and “temperate” as they are used today are not good translations of sophron or nephalios. No one is sober or temperate unless he abstains from alcohol.
IV. NEPHO AND NEPHALIOS: PHYSICAL ABSTINENCE
Nepho is a verb and nephalios is an adjective. Both words are generally used to mean physical abstinence in the New Testament. They are translated as sober or temperate.
Bible Verses with Nepho
I Thessalonians 5:6,8, be sober––sober in the Revised Standard Version.
II Timothy 4:5, watch––be steady in the RSV
I Peter 1:13, be sober––sober in the RSV.
I Peter 4:7, watch––sober in the RSV.
I Peter 5:8, be sober––sober in the RSV.
Bible Verses with Nephalios
I Timothy 3:2, vigilant or temperate––temperate in the RSV.
I Timothy 3:11, sober––temperate in the RSV
Titus 2:2, sober––temperate in the RSV
The Meaning of Nepho
Dr. Bacchiocchi quotes O. Bauernfeind from the Theological Dictionary of the New Testament and Philo, the Jewish philosopher. Bauernfeind writes, “. . . nepho, to be sober . . . is the opposite of intoxication.” Philo states, “So too soberness (nephein) and drunkenness are opposites.”22
Greek lexicons like Liddell and Scott's and Lampe's agree that nepho is “to be sober, drink no wine,” or “be temperate, drink no wine.” Abbott-Smith says, “to be sober, abstain from wine.”23 Donnegan gives the meaning of nepho as “to live abstemiously, to abstain from wine.” Greene defines it as “to be sober, not intoxicated.” Robinson writes “sober, temperate, abstinent, especially in respect to wine.”24
The Meaning of Nephalios
Nephalios, the adjective, has the same meaning as the verb nepho. Lampe gives the first meaning of nephalios as “without wine, temperate.” Remember what Clement of Alexandria said:
Itherefore admire those who have adopted an austere (nephalion poton or abstaining
from drink) life and who are fond of water . . . .
Nephalios is “one who does not drink wine.” says the Greek Dictionary of Byzantius, 1839. 25 And in the Theological Dictionary of the New Testament Bauernfeind explains that nephalios means “holding no wine.” He says this word was first used for the offerings without wine. Later it was used to describe the sober manner of life of the people who made the offerings.
Nepho and Nephalios in Greek Literature and the Greek Bible
Dr. Bacchiocchi tells us that nepho and nephalios mean abstaining from wine many times in classical Greek literature. But the Hellenist Greek writers who lived in New Testament times used these words to mean abstinence too.Many Jews were Hellenists.
How do these writers use nepho and nephalios? In the Greek Old Testament, the Septuagint, we find compound words like eknepho and eknepsi in Genesis 9:24, I Samuel 25:37 and Joel 1:5. These words mean “to become sober.” The verses picture Noah, Nabal and disobedient Israelites suddenly becoming sober because they were no longer influenced by wine.
Josephus and Philo, both Jews, lived at the time of Peter and Paul. They both used nephalios to mean abstinence. Josephus said the priests “. . . abstained (nephontes) chiefly from wine, out of this fear, lest otherwise they should transgress some rules of their ministration.” Philo explains that the priest must officiate as nephalios, totally abstinent from wine. In his essay, “On Drunkenness,” he said some men deliberately drink and “eliminate nephalion (translated soberness) from their soul and choose madness in its place.”26
Peter and Paul, nepho and nephalios, in the New Testament
Peter and Paul would have known very well the primary meaning of nepho and nephalios. Under the Holy Spirit's guidance, they used these exact words to describe the Christian testimony.
There are always people who claim Peter's and Paul's commands for soberness or abstinence just mean soberness of mind or a moderate use of wine. These moderationists assume the Bible does not condemn the use of wine, only its abuse. For example, in the Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament, Moulton and Milligan write about nephalios,
sober, temperate, abstaining from wine either entirely (as Josephus says in his
Antiquities ) orat least from its immoderate use: I Timothy 3:2,11; Titus 2:2. 27
Moulton and Milligan are telling us that Josephus says to abstain entirely but Paul saysto abstain moderately. The three verses they list simply tell elders or bishops, women and older men to be nephalious or abstainers from alcohol. If Josephus and Philo and many other writers used nephalios with the primary meaning “to abstain from wine,” why wouldn't Paul use it the same way?
Another argument of the moderationists is that the meaning of abstinence for nephalios was obsolete in the time of Peter and Paul. That is not true. Josephus and Philo lived at the same time as Peter and Paul. And long after Peter and Paul had gone to heaven, Greek writers still used nephalios to mean abstinent. The Greek philosopher Porphyry who lived about 232 – 303 A.D. said, “But be sober, nephalion, and drink without wine.”28
Why Are The Words Nepho and Nephalios Often Translated Wrong?
The evidence plainly shows that the primary meaning of nepho and nephalios is to abstain. Why then have these words usually been translated with the secondary sense of temperate, sober, steady—meaning self control—instead of saying abstinent? Dr. Bacchiocchi says he wonders if it is because the translators themselves had a liking for alcoholic wine. Ernest Gordon says the translators and the Bible teachers have been able “to save the face of wine while condemning drunkenness.”29
A bias or mental leaning toward wine shows up even in Greek lexicons. Liddell and Scott, for example, say nepho is “sober, drink no wine,” and prove it with many references. Then they give another definition to weaken the stand of total abstinence. The second meaning they include is “to be self-controlled, to be sober and wary.” They give I Thessalonians 5:6 and I Peter 4:7 as verses where they think the second definition would fit. We will study these verses later, but both verses support the meaning of abstinence more than the idea of being self controlled.
When it comes to the word nephalios, Liddell and Scott's lexicon says it means “making an offering . . . unmixed with wine.” They give, says Dr. Bacchiocchi, “a battery of texts to support this definition.” But later, when the authors of the lexicon use nephalios to refer to people, they say “sober” instead of “abstinent—no wine.” By sober they mean mental self control or moderation. They say I Timothy 3:2,11, Titus 2:2 and Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews 3,12,2 support their meaning of sober. As we have said before, these verses better support the meaning of abstinence. Josephus leaves no doubt that to him nephalios meant not being permitted to drink wine. None of the Bible verses the lexicon lists really support the idea of mental self control.30
Dr. Bacchiocchi writes that it seems that the lexicon authors first translate the verses in Timothy and Titus as sober or temperate rather than abstinent. After making this value judgment according to their own beliefs, they next say their own translation proves this is the true meaning of the verses.
V. ENKRATEIA: POWER TO ABSTAIN
Enkrateia comes from krat which means power over oneself or over something. The power shows up if one is able to abstain from all forms of evil. This word is closely related to nephalios. It stands for physical abstinence.
Enkrateia is translated in five verses in the New Testament:
Acts 24:25, temperance
I Corinthians 9:25, temperate––self control in the Revised Standard Version.
Galatians 5:23, temperance
II Peter 1:6,temperance
The Moderationist Argument
Moderationists say these Bible verses support their claim that the primary meaning of enkrateia and the English "temperate" is not total abstinence but moderation.They reason that the Greek enkrateia and English "temperate" do not mean power to resist or totally abstain from evil; they only mean moderation or power to "resist all temptation to excess in anything." 31
Dr. Bacchiocchi says this reasoning is far from the truth. The primary meaning of English “temperance,” Latin temperantia and Greek enkrateia is, first of all, abstinence. Leon C. Field in Oinos, A Discussion of the Bible Wine Question, 1883, researched the history of the words temperance/temperantia/enkrateia. He found extensive well documented historical evidence to prove that the main meaning of these words has always been abstinence. The Theological Dictionary of the New Testament also gives a list of evidence to prove the same point. Only in modern times has the meaning of “temperance” changed to moderation.
English and Greek Writers Say Temperance, "Enkrateia," Means Abstinence
English author Sir Thomas Elyot, 1531, wrote, “He that is temperate fleeth pleasure voluptuous (sensuous) . . . and willingly absteineth.” Thomas Hobbes, 1640, defines “temperance as the habit by which we abstain from all things that tend to our destruction.”32
In Greek, Aristotle (384 – 322 B.C.) talks about the “self-restrained man (enkrates) who refuses to follow bad desires. Ecclesiasticus, a book of the Apochrypha has a section called, “Temperance (enkrateia) of the Soul.” It starts out, “Go not after thy lusts, but refrain thyself from thy appetites.” Josephus says the Essenes “. . . esteem abstinence (enkrateian), and the conquest over our passions.” The most conclusive proof that enkrateia means abstinence comes from some Christian groups who took the name, Encratites. They abstained from wine, flesh-meat and some did not even marry.33
1. Dr. William Patton, Bible Wines, Sane Press, Oklahoma City, p.92.
2. Dr. Robert Teachout, The Use of Wine in the Old Testament, Doctoral Dissertation, Dallas Theological Seminary, 1979, pp.183,184. Dr. Teachout also says:
The large Liddell and Scott classical lexicon says“sweet new wine, grape-juice, sweetness.” Sweet new wine is used probably for convention, not clarity. Since the Greeks used oinos gleukos to refer to the grape juice beverage the word wine was included. We know unfermented grape beverages were called wine.
Moulton and Milligan's lexicon of the Papyri, p. 127, shows the same truth. The translators say gleukos is must or grape juice. They mention two papyri that say oinos gleukos adolou which can be translated “genuine or unadulterated grape juice.”
3. Dr. Samuele Bacchiocchi, Wine in the Bible, Biblical Perspective, Berrien Springs, Michigan, p.180.
4. Ibid., See also note 2, Dr. Teachout's research.
5. W. E. Vine, M.A., An Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words, Old Time Gospel Hour, Lynchburg, Virginia, 1952, pp.1231,1232.
6. Matthew Henry, Matthew Henry's Commentary, Fleming H. Revell Co., New York, Vol. VI, p.18.
7. Teachout, Use of Wine, p.184.
8. Bacchiocchi, Wine in the Bible, p.180.
9. Patton, Bible Wines, p.93.
10. Bacchiocchi, Wine in the Bible, p.181.
11. Patton, Bible Wines, p.95.
12. Bacchiocchi, Wine in the Bible, p.184.
13. Patton, Bible Wines, p.105.
14. Bacchiocchi, Wine in the Bible, p.193. From Barnes Notes on the New Testament. Ephesians, Philippians and Colossians.
15. Ibid., p.196. A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament, A New Greek and English Lexicon, A Greek-English Lexicon to the New Testament.
17. Ibid., p.196. From Aristotle, Nichomachean Ethics, 1,9.
18. Ibid., Dr. Bacchiocchi from The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, The Testament of Judah 16, 3, ed., R. H. Charles.
19. Ibid., Philo wrote On Drunkenness.
20. Ibid., p.197. Clement wrote The Instructor.
21. Ibid., Ulrich Luck, Sophron, vol. 7 of the Dictionary. He gives many examples of sophron as abstinence.
22. Ibid., p.198. Bauernfeind's article, Nepho, Nephalios, Eknepho, vol.4 of the Theological Dictionary. Philo, De Plantatione 172.
23. Ibid., p.199. most Greek lexicons agree on the primary meaning of nepho.
24. Patton, Bible Wines, p.111.
25. Bacchiocchi, Wine in the Bible, p.199. Dr. Bacchiocchi used the 1939 edition, Lexicon Epitomou tes Ellenikes Glosses.
26. Ibid., p.200. From Josephus Wars of the Jews and Philo On Drunkenness.
27. Ibid., from Antiquities 3,12,2.
28. Ibid., p.201. Dr. Bacchiocchi's notes refer us to Lees and Burns, The Temperance Bible Commentary for more information about the claim that the original meaning of nephalios had become obsolete. Porphyry wrote De Abstinentia.
29. Ibid., Gordon wrote Christ, the Apostles and Wine. An Exegetical Study, 1947.
30. Ibid., p.201.
31. Ibid., p.210. Dr. Bacchiocchi quotes thoughts from Chancellor H. Crosby and Horace Bumstead.
32. Ibid., p.210,211. Elyot wrote Governor, and Hobbes De Corpore Politico.
33. Ibid., p.211. Dr. Bacchiocchi says some early Christian writers who mentioned the Encratites were Irenaeus, Clement, Hippolytus and Epiphanius.